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VISION: To Create a Vibrant Entrepreneurial Base for Progressive Society to Bring in Socio-Economic Sustenance.  MISSION: In Pursuance to Create Socio Economic Sustenance through Entrepreneurship Development

27-03.2017 : The Presidium members, Advisers, Director, Deans, Chapter Heads and Life Members of NFED wishes the Founder Chairman and Presidium Chair KVJ. Prof. Dr. R. Ganesan a wonderful Birthday and NFED Day




(TIMER) – A Refereed Journal of NFED



Author's Guidelines

All manuscripts should begin with an Abstract EXCEPT CASES.  For cases, there are special requirements, which will be discussed in a later section.  Italicize the abstract and limit it to 300 words.  The heading should be the word, abstract, at the left margin, in all caps, without bolding, or font changes. Do NOT italicize the heading.



After the introduction, the body of the manuscript should follow. Use single spacing throughout, and remember not to change the typeface, justifications, margins, or enter any other commands into the manuscript. Make all headings in capital letters, as shown. In most cases, there should NOT be subheadings. These simply breakup the flow of the manuscript and should only be used when the complexity of the exposition is high. In most cases, further headings are the only aspects required to keep the manuscript clear and clean. If you MUST use subheadings, they should be typed at the left margin with initial caps. The entire paper should be in Times New Roman format with a font size of 12 points (not applicable to the formatting of specific captions and contents as mentioned in the guidelines).

Do not double space between paragraphs, and indent the first sentence in each paragraph. You should DOUBLE SPACE around all headings. DO NOT USE A PARAGRAPH STYLE COMMAND. Indent the text with a tab. Style commands of any type remain in a document from the points of introduction, right through to the end. Since the Proceedings or Journal will be compiled into a single file, commands introduced in one manuscript affect all the others. For example, a FIRST LINE INDENT will affect every line in every new paragraph, which follows, even if that paragraph begins with a TAB. Every style command functions that way. Please do not use them.

If you desire to use offset material in the text to highlight a list of items, a quote, a hypothesis, findings, or anything else, please remember that the PARAGRAPH STYLE COMMANDS should NOT be used. That means that you should NOT use bullets or automatically generated line or paragraph numbers. These stay in the document and affect all manuscripts, which follow. To highlight information, just double space around it, and change its font to 10 points.

To highlight material, double space around it;

Do not indent it;

Drop its font to 10 points;

You can italicize it, if you desire; and

 We will put the material in a box to illustrate its importance.

If you really want the highlighted material to be NUMBERED, then you MUST put the material in a TABLE. We will talk about tables in a later section. At this point, please remember that if you allow the word processor to arrange the material in your text, it accomplishes this through a format command, which will affect every manuscript behind yours in the volume, which the publishers are producing. Even worse, conflicting commands in various manuscripts can cause major problems.



We use IEEE (for engineering / technology articles or papers) & APA style (management / entrepreneurship / general papers) for all of our publications. The IEEE and American Psychologist’s Association Style Manual does not employ footnotes. Instead, a citation is handled in the body of the text (Ganesan & Sujata, 2010), by putting the last names of the authors, followed by the year of the publication within parenthesizes. If there are multiple citations with a single sentence then separate the articles with a semicolon ((Ganesan & Sujata (2002); Ganesan & Maheshwari (2008)). If the citation occurs at the end of the sentence, it should be INSIDE the period.

Please try NEVER to use FOOTNOTES. Word processors create footnotes according to a pattern, which places them at the end of the document and counts from the first page of the document. That means that they blend between manuscripts. Since we use APA style, the only need for footnotes is more explanatory information. That can be inserted parenthetically (like this). If you MUST use a footnote, you MUST type in the superscript (like this Ganesan (2000). Global Women Entrepreneurs – A Profile and Analysis1) and you MUST type the footnoted material at the END of your manuscript under the heading ENDNOTES. (It can never appear at the bottom of a page because that would interfere with footers and pagination).



One of the major problems, which we face in publishing manuscripts, is the appearance of mathematical formulae. Based on a new discovery and updated software (Microsoft Equation Editor 3.0 or similar Equation Editors, text only. Equations should be displayed on a separate line and numbered in parentheses on the right margin. Keep formulae as simple as possible. Avoid using formulae in a sentence and define the variables in the formulae box. You must AVOID USING SYMBOLS IN THE BODY OF THE TEXT. Refer to variables by name in the body of the text as indicated below:


Mean / Average = (∑X) / N where, ∑X=X1+X2+………Xn



Tables which contain only simple data and which will fit on a single page in portrait mode are best handled if you just present the material with tabs separating it and let us create the table. Type it at the left margin; reduce its size to 10 points, and separate columnar data with tabs. Do not change the TAB DEFAULT SETTING. If your tables are too complex to fit on a single page in portrait mode, we can drop the font size to 9 points, but if you need to go lower than that, you need to insert the material into a table and we will try to handle the adjustments. However, if you attempt to do the same thing, the formatting which you introduce in your efforts will make our job much more difficult.



If the table is long, you should place it at the end of the text. In that case, insert a line like the following so we know where you would prefer the table to appear and we will place it as near to that point as we can, given the need to layout the pages. If the table is so large that it cannot be displayed in portrait mode, then prepare it in landscape, and let us know in the cover letter that you have such a table. Place it at the end of the text and we will see if we can adapt it to our publication needs. If we continue to have trouble with the table, we will contact you by e-mail to resolve the issue.

One solution might be to submit us a good quality hardcopy on bright white paper (brightness level of 96 or higher), and we could use that to scan in the table, and then shrink it to fit. As these factors affect few people, we will address them on a one to one basis.

Finally, if you prepare tables with different column widths in Word, then translate that table into Word Perfect; the result will be a series of tables, displayed one above the other. As you might expect, that creates serious problems during the publishing process. If you have complex tables, we would prefer to receive them in Quattro or in Excel, as separate files.



Figures can be extremely difficult not only because they do not translate well across platforms, but also they tend to slip badly in appearance from computer to computer. For example, some authors like to draw pictures or prepare illustrations in PowerPoint or one of the presentation software packages. These were never intended to fold seamlessly into a word processor, and they do not. In order to avoid the inconveniences it is always preferred to follow the below instructions:

Please be sure that any figures or illustrations that you incorporate into your manuscript are ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL to the reader. If you can omit something without sacrificing understanding, then please do so. If you require a graphic, then please prepare it as a single graphic, NOT as a collection of graphics. Place them at the END of the manuscript and indicate where they should go in the body of your text, as we illustrated for tables, above.

Finally, you MUST SEND A HARD COPY OF THE ILLUSTRATION by mail. This copy should be prepared to appear just the way you would like for it to look. You MUST print it on bright, white paper, with a brightness factor of at least 96 (ordinary paper has a brightness level of 87 and looks dull or yellow to a scanner). Use a high quality printer of at least 1,200 dots per inch to produce the image and print it in BLACK AND WHITE, only. The hard copy of the image will help us to understand what the figure should look like, as well as allow us to use the hard copy to scan the image, if we are unable to read and translate the file.


References should be prepared in general accordance with the IEEE for engineering & technology papers / APA (American Psychological Association) for management, entrepreneurship and general papers respectively. We do deviate from IEEE / APA style with respect to underlines. These do not reproduce well; consequently, we ask that you use italics in place of underlines and 1.5 line spacing and DO NOT ITALICIZE in any way in between references. For Example:


Citing a Journal Article

Pierskall, W., and Voelker, J. (1976), “A Survey of Maintenance Models: The Control and Surveillance of Deteriorating System”, Naval Research Logistics, 23 (2), 353-388.


Citing a Book

Sherbrooke, C. C. (1992), Optimal Inventory Modelling of Systems, John Wiley, New York.


Citing a Chapter in Book

Dinesh Kumar, U., and Crocker, J. (2002), “Maintainability and Maintenance – A Case Study on Safety Critical Aircraft Components and Engine”, In: Wallace, B. and Murthy D. N. P. (ed), Cases in Reliability and Maintenance John Wiley, New York, 47-61.


Citing an Article in a Magazine

Gendron, G., and Burlingham, B. (1989), The entrepreneur of the decade: An interview with Steve Jobs Inc., 114-128.


Citing a Proceedings

Ganesan, R., Pradhan, R. P., and Maheshwari, R. C. (2006), Psychosocial Perceptional Differences - An Empirical Exploratory Study on Indian Food Processing Women Entrepreneurs, Proceedings of 'International Seminar on Creating Entrepreneurship Environment and Developing Entrepreneurial Management", IIT Mumbai March 16-18, Mumbai.


Citing a Presentation

Ensley, M. E., Carland, J. A, and Carland, J. W. (May, 1998), The lead entrepreneur. Presented to the Babson College Entrepreneurship Conference, Gent, Belgium.


Citing an Article in a Book

Brockhaus, R. H. (1982), The psychology of the entrepreneur. In Kent, C., Sexton, D., and Vesper, K. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship (pp. 39-57). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.


Citing an Internet Source

GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.) Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/

Citing a Published Thesis / Dissertation / Report

Ganesan, R. (2003), Psychosocial Profile of Women Entrepreneurs in Food Processing Enterprises, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indian Institutes of Technology, Delhi, INDIA.

Citing a Unpublished Thesis / Dissertation / Report

Pal, M. N. (1975), “Programming Models for Redundancy Optimization Under Maintenance and Other Constraints”, Fellow Programme in Management Thesis, Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta.

Citing a Film

La Pointe, R. and Glazer, H. (Executive Producers) (1992), H. Ross Perot: A vision for success in the ‘90s. Boston, MA: Goldhirish Group Inc.



Prepare cases as described above with these exceptions. First, instead of an abstract, begin the case with a case description and a case synopsis, both in italics and illustrated below. Technical information is in the description, while the synopsis should gain the reader's interest. The body of the case should follow the synopsis, separated by a heading. Prepare the Instructors’ Note, described more fully below, in accordance with these instructions and place it in a separate file.



The primary subject matter of this case concerns (describe the subject) and secondary issues examined include (list as many as the case contains). The case has a difficulty level of (choose one of the following: one, appropriate for freshman level courses; two, appropriate for sophomore level; three, appropriate for junior level; four, appropriate for senior level; five, appropriate for first year graduate level; six, appropriate for second year graduate level; seven, appropriate for doctoral level). The case is designed to be taught in (indicate how many) class hours and is expected to require (indicate how many) hours of outside preparation by students / scholars / researchers.



In this section, present a brief overview (a maximum of 350 words). Be creative. This section will be the primary selling points of your case. Potential case users are more apt to choose cases for adoption, which catch their fancy.


Author (s) should submit an electronic version (scanned and ready in al respects) of the paper using Microsoft Word after acceptance of paper for publication by the Editor-in-Chief. (Electronic copy should match with hardcopy dispatched to individual)



Epilogues, if appropriate, should close the note. If your case is from library research, include the references for all material used in a REFERENCES section.


Generally, the Editors view proceedings versions of manuscripts as early representations of the final work. This is a view, which is held by most academics and is used by most tenure, promotion and reappointment committees in evaluating research activity. As an early version of a work in process, proceedings manuscripts should generally be shorter and a reader of the proceedings who later reads a journal publication in final form should be able to note the added work in the expanded version. The Editors / Associate Editors recommend that authors employ titles for proceedings versions, which will be different from titles used for journal versions of manuscripts, and ensure that any reader of both will clearly see the difference in the versions. If an author does not intend to pursue journal publication of a manuscript, then the complete manuscript, in final form, with final title, can and should be published in the proceedings. However, if an author intends to expand the work for ultimate journal publication, the Editors / Associate Editors strongly advise that attention be paid to distinguishing the proceedings version.



In general, we limit Proceedings manuscripts to five, single-spaced pages in length. As described in the foregoing paragraph, we find that this is not generally a problem. However, if authors wish longer Proceedings versions, we can accommodate them for an additional fee. In general, we limit journal versions to twenty-five (25) pages single-spaced including all exhibits and references. We also require that the files be no more than 2.5 Megabytes (MB) in size. However, if authors wish longer journal versions, we can accommodate them for an additional fee.

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